新型コロナウイルスの空気感染を示唆する情報

2020.2.22より開始

2020.2.28 As Coronavirus Spreads, Experts Explain When to Call a Doctor, How Testing Works and More

UCサンフランシスコ医療センターには40以上の空気感染隔離室があるそうです。

UCSF Health has put into the place CDC-recommended infection prevention protocols and procedures to prevent spread of infection from patients with COVID-19, said Yokoe.
These include placing patients with confirmed or possible COVID-19 infection into isolation rooms with negative pressure and special ventilation to prevent the spread of illness to other patients and staff. UCSF Health has over 40 airborne infection isolation rooms and can adapt additional rooms to care for larger number of patients, if needed.

2020.2.28 新型コロナウイルス 閉鎖空間で短時間浮遊の可能性 学会が見解 換気でリスク下げ

日本感染症学会と日本環境感染学会は、新型コロナウイルスが閉鎖空間でごく短時間空気中に浮遊し、他者に感染する可能性があるとの見解をまとめた。通常のマスクで防げないが、換気でリスクを下げられるという。長時間にわたってウイルスが浮遊し続ける空気感染は否定した。
日本感染症学会の舘田一博理事長によると、せきなどで生じる飛沫は水分を多く含み浮遊しないが、会話で生じるつばがウイルスを含んで飛び、ごく短時間空気中に浮遊している可能性があるという。飛沫よりも水分が少なく小さいため通常のマスクでは防げない。舘田理事長は「ノロウイルスで患者の嘔吐(おうと)物からウイルスが短時間舞い上がる塵埃(じんあい)感染に似た現象だ」と指摘する。閉鎖環境を避けることが重要だという。個室の立食パーティーや宴席はリスクが高いが、窓を開け放したり換気扇を利用したりすることで一定程度の対策ができる。

・空気感染の中で、短時間浮遊するものと長時間浮遊するものに分類したほうが妥当ではないだろうか。短時間浮遊するものも、床に落下する飛沫ではないのだから。
・初期の指針「一般市民向け新型コロナウイルス感染症に対する注意事項(2020 年 2 月 3 日現在)」「新型コロナウイルス感染症(COVID-19)―水際対策から感染蔓延期に向けて―(2020 年 2 月 21 日現在)」には換気については全く言及されていなかった(向野)

2020.2.28 Coronavirus Disease 2019 vs. the Flu

airborn infectionの可能性があると言ってます。

While both the flu and COVID-19 may be transmitted in similar ways (see the Similarities section above), there is also a possible difference: COVID-19 might be spread through the airborne route, meaning that tiny droplets remaining in the air could cause disease in others even after the ill person is no longer near.

2020.2.25 Doctor claims face masks are ‘useless’ protection from Coronavirus: ‘A mask won’t save you’

空気感染の話ではないですが、マスクは役に立たないと本当のことを言ってます。

wearing a mask is basically pointless. masks are pretty useless.

2020.2.24 Trump’s fury over coronavirus patients being repatriated may be justified

空気感染の話ではありませんが、クルーズ船の米国人乗客を船内にとどめておくか、帰国させるかで、CDCと国務省の間で対立があったようです。

The patients tested positive after the arrangements for their repatriation had been made as part of the group. That prompted a heated debate between the State Department, wanting to go ahead with the repatriation, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which recommended against it. The State Department got its way.
Anne Schuchat, the CDC executive who passionately advised against the repatriation, thought the safer course of action would have been keeping the infected people in Japan, as it had initially been considered for the whole group of US passengers onboard the cruise ship. The State Department, on the other hand, trusted the precautions put in place on the plane, and considered the journey back to the US safe: The infected passengers would be separated in an enclosure in the plane.

2020.2.21 Interim Infection Prevention and Control Recommendations for Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) or Persons Under Investigation for COVID-19 in Healthcare Settings

米国CDCは標準・接触・空気予防策を推奨しました。なぜか飛沫予防策が外れています。

All HCP (see section 3 for measures for non-HCP visitors) who enter the room of a patient with known or suspected COVID-19 (i.e., PUI) should adhere to Standard, Contact, and Airborne Precautions

患者退室後の処置は麻疹、結核に同じ。CDCは空気感染の可能性を否定していません。

We do not yet know how long COVID-19 remains infectious in the air. In the interim, it is reasonable to apply a similar time period before entering the room without respiratory protection as used for pathogens spread by the airborne route (e.g., measles, tuberculosis).

CDCは2月12日にhome careのガイダンスを発表しています。

2020.2.21 Cruise ship AC systems could promote rapid coronavirus spread, prof says

パデュー大学のQingyan Chen教授がクルーズの空調システムはコロナウイルスをろ過するようには設計されていないと言ってます。
Chen教授は2.20の記事にも出ています。同じ内容でしょうか。

According to a Purdue University air quality expert, cruise ship air conditioning systems are not designed to filter out particles as small as th coronavirus, allowing the disease to rapidly circulate to other cabins.

2020.2.21 How does the new coronavirus spread? These new studies offer clues.

米国CDCは帰国したクルーズ船の乗客を感染隔離室に入れることを推奨しているそうです。CDCも新型コロナが空気感染することを想定しているのではないかと言ってます。

So researchers and doctors are looking into whether the news SARS virus spreads this way - and taking precautions in case it can. Vito Iacoviello, chief of the division of infectious diseases at Mount Auburn Hospital in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and an editor at Dynamed, noted that the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is recommending people admitted to hospitals with Covid-19 be put in an airborne isolation room. “That’s the precaution we use for TB, measles, and chickenpox,” he said, and it suggests health officials are preparing for the possibility that this virus is capable of airborne spread.

2020.2.20 新型コロナウイルスで可能性が指摘された「エアロゾル感染」とは? 大西淳子=医学ジャーナリスト

よくまとめられています。

これまで、新型コロナウイルスの飛沫核感染の発生は確認されていません。それでも、インフルエンザ予防策と同様、室内の換気は、感染リスクを減らすために役立つと考えられています。
今回のエアロゾル感染に関する報道は、インフルエンザ予防策のひとつとして換気が大切だったことを思い出させてくれました。これまでの手洗いや消毒に加えて、換気も適切に実施していくことが大切です。

2020.2.20 HVAC not likely to play role in coronavirus spread on cruise ship

これは空調説を否定するレポートです。確かにクルーズの空調はウイルスをろ過できない。しかし、ウイルスの空調による感染は起きないと言っています。

The system on board the Diamond Princess was supplied by Knud E. Hansen. In a statement, Diamond Princess’ owner Princess Cruises said ‘the HVAC filtration system on our ships is comparable to those used by land-based hotels, resorts and casinos.’ This probably means this system will also not be able to filter out viruses. However, Van Dijk points out the chance of a virus spreading through the HVAC system is still very small.

ここに米国CDCの考え方があり、日本政府もこれに従っていると考えられます。

‘In addition, COVID-19 is expected to spread like flu does,’ says Van Dijk. ‘And flu hardly spreads through air ducts, but through contact and moisture drops (coughing/sneezing). This is unavoidable on a ship with 2000 passengers.’ The CDC has expressed similar findings and has emphasised that staying in a cabin and limiting contact with other people are still the best ways to minimise exposure.

2020.2.20 Here’s Why The Cruise Ship Quarantine Turned Into Such A Disaster.  

クルーズ内では空中のウイルスがろ過されていないと言ってます。

Bad ventilation and a botched quarantine on the Diamond Princess likely caused hundreds of illnesses and two deaths in the largest outbreak outside China.
Cruise ships can’t filter air well enough to stop the spread of viruses
“Get off that ship - there are a lot better places to isolate people,” Purdue University's Qingyan Chen, an expert on ventilation during virus outbreaks, told BuzzFeed News. “In ships, you cannot filter the air well enough to stop viruses.”
At this point, he added, the entire ventilation system is likely filled with the virus, even if they were to switch to circulating only fresh air. “It’s really kind of too late for the Diamond Princess, right now,” he said.
“People have trouble with the fear factor - ‘airborne’ sounds scary, but flu is airborne, and we face it all the time,” said Milton. Medical isolation of infected patients with ventilation that doesn’t spread viruses to uninfected people will doubtless be one key to stopping outbreaks, he suggested.

2020.2.19 Novel coronavirus can transmit via aerosol: health authorities

中国保健当局(中華人民共和国国家衛生委員会National Health Commission of the PRC)は公式にエアロゾル感染を認めました。

Aerosol, a suspension of fine solid or liquid particles in gas, can transmit the novel coronavirus if anyone is exposed to a high concentrated contaminated mixture in an enclosed area for an extended period, according to a latest treatment and diagnosis plan.

しかし、中国CDCはあまり認めたくないようです。2.24のWHOとのレポートでは従来の主張を繰り返しています

Airborne spread has not been reported for COVID-19 and it is not believed to be a major driver of transmission based on available evidence; however, it can be envisaged if certain aerosol-generating procedures are conducted in health care facilities.

2020.2.18 The coronavirus cruise ship quarantine is a scary public health experiment

換気システムによる感染が疑われたが、米国CDCが乗客と乗組員にエビデンスがないとメールを送ったそうです。メール(2月8日付)見れます↓

But like SARS, there’s already some suggestion that the new coronavirus may be able to spread long distances through pipes in buildings, and potentially via feces, too. It’s also possible the virus could spread through the cruise ship’s ventilation systems, though in a letter to passengers and crew, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said it has no evidence of that yet.
A Tokyo doctor who specializes in infectious diseases told the New York Times that the experiment was “an unprecedented failure.” We should learn from this lesson that a quarantine on a ship is impossible, and we should not repeat this in the future,” Eiji Kusumi said.

2020.2.16 World Health Organization’s Chief Says Coronavirus Is Airborne But Many Concealing This Including Media From US, China and Europe

中国で空気感染というと懲戒処分になるらしいです。(2月10日の記事も見てください)誰がこのことを隠蔽しようとしているのかと言ってます。空気感染説には中国CDCが反対したようです。

When a leading Chinese researcher, Dr Zeng Qun,who is the deputy head of the Shanghai Civil Affairs Bureau, told a press briefing last Saturday in Shanghai that the new coronavirus can be spread via airborne transmission, along with Dr Shen Yinzhong, the medical director of the Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center who also made the similar statement at another press event on the same day, they were immediately reprimanded by Chinese authorities and China embarked on another PR exercise to refute these claims. Surprisingly certain other countries leaders and health authorities also sided China and refuted these claims despite no studies indicating that the coronavirus was not transmittable by airborne means.

We have also been told by a third party in China (data not verified yet) that a group of Chinese researchers have actually done a study to prove that the coronavirus is indeed airborne but have since been being reprimanded by the Chinese authorities. We are of the midst of secuing copy of these studies and reports and also other research studies on the coronavirus and will be submitting it to certain parties in Canada and ustralia for verification before publishing them online as these are the only safe countries at the moment.
We are now extremely confused not only on the issue of the fact that the coronavirus is indeed airborne but why the cover ups and who are behind the the coverups and why. It is also scary to think that many well known respected and trusted media and social media platforms could also be involved in the coverups.

2020.2.14 Going on a cruise? Here’s how to stay healthy onboard

窓を開けて風を入れろと言ってます。

As scientists learn more about the virus and how it’s transmitted, there may be more scrutiny of ventilation systems on cruise ships, Parenti adds. In a hospital, it’s possible to put a patient in a “respiratory isolation” room with frequent air exchanges.
That’s not an option for most cruise accommodations. The next best choice, according to Parenti? “I would take a window, personally.” At least you could open it and get a breeze that way.

2020.2.14コロナウイルス感染拡大は「3月までに終結」と大御所が断言する理由

根路銘(ねろめ)国昭先生のインタビュー(2)

「閉鎖した空間、隔離病棟に閉じ込めたのは大きなミスです。閉鎖した空間に感染者や発症者を閉じ込めるのでは、ウイルスを培養しているのに等しい。これは、大きな間違いです。
2月7日、武漢大学中南医院の医療チーム14人が連名で、米医学雑誌「JAMA」のオンライン版に、「40人の医療専門家と17人の入院患者は院内感染が疑われる」という正直な報告を投稿しましたね。閉鎖した病院が爆発的な感染の元になったことを物語っています。私が早くから指摘していた通りでした。
病院の窓を全部開け放ち、扇風機でも使って室内の空気を外に排出し、ウイルスを追い出せばよかった。窓を開けて「鬼は外!」が最良の方策だったんです。 空気中に長時間浮遊し「空気感染」するインフルエンザウイルスと違い、コロナウイルスは「飛沫感染」しかしない。しかもコロナウイルスは、空気中で1~2メートルも飛べば死滅します。
2003年、SARSが大きな流行を見せたベトナム・ハノイの病院では、病院の窓という窓を開け放ち、扇風機で室内の空気を外へ送り出し、SARSウイルスを空へ放つという思い切った方策をとりました。これによりベトナムは流行終結宣言を出せたんです。実に敬服すべき措置でした

2020.2.13コロナ「感染拡大のおそれはとても小さい」大御所がパニックを叱る!

根路銘(ねろめ)国昭先生のインタビュー(1)

「第二の大きな誤算は、コロナウイルスの感染者や肺炎患者を病院に集め隔離し、密閉した部屋に閉じ込めたことです。その密閉空間でさらに新しい患者を、いわばどんどん培養してしまったんです。
 患者を収容した隔離病棟の窓を開けて、コロナウイルスを天空へ、「鬼は外!」と追い払っていたら、患者数の増加を防ぎ、減らすことができたはずなんです。」 「新型インフルエンザでは、1人の発病者が搭乗した航空機内で40人が感染し、重度の肺炎になったケースがありました。CDC(米疾病対策センター)が報告している有名な「航空機事件」ですが、これも「空気感染」ゆえです。

2020.2.13 Coronavirus on cruise ‘could spread room to room through air conditioning

空調原因説を否定する米国CDCと英国の熱帯医学専門家の意見が対立しています.

Tropical disease specialist Dr Richard Dawood said coronavirus could spread if air is moving along ducts between cabins. A lot of the time it’s a shared airspace so it’s very difficult to stop an airborne virus of that kind from spreading.
When asked if coronavirus can spread through the HVAC system, Princess Cruises said: ‘According to a letter recently sent to cruise ship passengers and crew members onboard cruise ships by Anne Schuchat, principal deputy director(主任副局長) at the US CDC, there is no current evidence to suggest that the virus spreads through air-handling systems.



2020.2.11 WHO Chief Says Coronavirus Is Airborne

WHOのテドロス・アダノム事務局長はコロナウイルスはairborne(空気感染)と話しています。

Ebola is lousy, this is airborne, corona is airborne and it's more contagious... In terms of potential to wreck havok corona is very different than ebola, Corona has more potensive, virulence, we take it more seriously.

2020.2.11 Experts suggest fresh air, ventilation may avert Coronavirus

シンガポールからのレポート。温かく湿度が上がると流行は収まるだろうと言ってます。また、Let fresh air in by keeping windows and doors openと言ってます。

2020.2.10 Coronavirus is airborne, Chinese official confirms

上海当局は空気感染を確認、人々は換気のため窓を開けるように勧告されていると。

an official in Shanghai confirmed the virus also travelled through aerosol transmission, which means it can float a long distance through the air and cause infection later when it is breathed in.
"Aerosol transmission refers to the mixing of the virus with droplets in the air to form aerosols, which causes infection after inhalation, according to medical experts," Shanghai Civil Affairs Bureau deputy head Zeng Qun said at press briefing on Saturday, the China Daily reports.
People are also urged to open windows in the home to help with ventilation, and disinfect door handles, dinner tables and toilet seats.

2020.2.9 How healthy buildings can help us fight coronavirus

コロナウイルスと戦うには建物を健康的なものに変えないといけない。つまりより良い換気システムをもつ建物に。さらに、higher outdoor air ventilation rates and better filtration can reduce risk from influenza, rhinovirus, tuberculosis and Sars.と述べている。

2020.1.16 COVID-19 is classified as an airborne high consequence infectious disease (HCID) in the UK.

英国は新型コロナウイルスを空気感染型のHCID(重大な結果をもたらす感染症)として分類しました。接触感染ではなく。

airborne HCIDs are spread by respiratory droplets or aerosol transmission, in addition to contact routes of transmission

2005頃?大型客船空調システム設計についての紹介

ダイアモンド・プリンセス号を設計された三菱重工の方の論文です。客船の空調は新鮮空気量30%と書いておられます。